Permeability comes from ... ... water
Of course, there is water to be absorbed. Water is everywhere: in the house, in the house, in the ground, in the sky ... Water in the drainage system can not be removed, the water of nature is not controlled. Simply put, water is an integral part of building. Where there is water there is a risk of seepage. However, unlike heat resistant, it is easy to see - waterproofing is much more difficult and heavier on a technical solution. As in the previous issue we mentioned, the anti-heat from the past has been paid attention by our father to deal with many solutions; but the waterproofing is almost nonexistent - due to the small size of the building, and the water-related activities are virtually detached from the house. Both water supply and discharge are natural. The problem of permeability and waterproofing occurs later as construction develops, other architectural features and new ways of living affect architecture. This is the pull near the space related to water activities in the main space, water supply and drainage system is no longer "natural" anymore, the scale of the works open in width, height and depth, many areas functional areas related to water appear ...
Theoretically, conventional building materials have capillaries (gaps between particles) of about 20 to 40 microns in diameter (1micromet = 1 / 1.000mm). When the surface of the material comes into contact with water, water penetrates through the openings of the surface, permeating the capillaries into the capillaries, causing infiltration.
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Critical position - pins buried in the wall
Vietnam is a country in the tropics, hot and humid rain, high temperature difference, the climate is relatively severe. All weather conditions and weather conditions are not conducive to the phenomenon of shrinkage, expansion, cracking and destruction of the surface as well as the structure of materials, enabling water penetration.
What parts of the work are susceptible to infiltration?
These are the parts of the works affected by nature (rainwater, groundwater), and works related to storage, use water. The architecture can be classified as follows:
- The parts are absorbed by underground water: underground basement, foundation, foot wall ...
- Sections impregnated with rainwater: walls, roofs, balconies, lot ...
- Sections infiltrated by water use (both in and out): floors, walls, engineering boxes ... sanitary areas and related areas.
- Areas related to storage tanks: septic tanks, basins (underground, floating), swimming pools ...
Critical positions are specific
The above says, water permeates through crevices on the surface and structure of the material, but that depends entirely on the material properties we use. Here we would like to mention another problem - more specifically, often occurs in the process of building and using the building: it is the position is critical, or occurrence of cracks, holes, holes ... create Osmosis conditions lead to permeability. That is:
- The position of the circuit stops when the concrete is poured
- The location adjacent to the building block (brick wall) and concrete structure
- The location adjacent to the building blocks before - after, the old - new building (in case of renovation)
- The adjacent position between the two building blocks close together
- The location adjacent to the surface using different materials
- Legs, tools buried or assembled to the wall (iron flowers, sun rays, lightning strings ...)
- The foot position of the link positioning light roof panels (bolts, screws)
- Water drainage hatches (toilet floor, balcony floor, lot, terrace, roof ...)
- Area near creole, trough
- Location of drainage pipes.
Infiltration influences the quality of works, water consumption (leakage of tanks), unhygienic, aesthetic effect ... cause very uncomfortable psychology for users. Waterproofing is always a complicated and difficult issue. However, if you know the principles and location easily permeable, there are architectural solutions and technical procedures are reasonable, the waterproofing is not too difficult. In this section, we do not go into the solutions of chemical and material engineering (more and more appearing by companies producing waterproofing materials); only solutions that are original.
Architectural solution or roommate rather than cure
Never let the phenomenon of permeability occur and then find the cause and solution. "Room" helps us to be more proactive with solutions ahead. Architectural solutions, the use of reasonable materials are the most important factors. Waterproofing basically stops the water source - also means limiting cracks on the surface. Therefore, some of the waterproofing solutions are related to anti-heat.
- Study geology of works, related hydrological elements to have good waterproofing solution for foundation, basement and wall.
- Design of roofs suitable for architecture and local climate, ensuring the direction of water diversion and sloping rain water drainage, avoid creating areas prone to stagnant water. For flat roofs, a slope of at least 3% is required.
- Organize surface, functional area related to water (sanitation) science to avoid the system of water supply - circulating, go far to cause the phenomenon of infiltration and difficult to repair.
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With large roofs, the distribution of water and drainage position is important
- Beat enough (2 - 3%) and in the right direction for the floor, toilet, the water floor such as terrace, balcony, lot. Design a reasonable collection station.
- Protection of fixed roof structure (concrete roof), avoid the direct impact of rain and sun with solutions such as roofing / tile (with slope roof), woven sheet, covered with iron roof, light cover (with flat roof). This cover helps the concrete roof to avoid shrinkage, cracks easily appear. Garden design, roof or terrace water is a good solution for protecting the roof structure but it is also a double-edged sword if not handled well.
- Protect the structure of the cover (wall) - especially the east - west wall is resistant to sun is more likely to crack by using the sun block, green trees ..., using appropriate surface materials. Do not build thin walls are easy to crack, use the right type of brick for building blocks.
- Strictly follow the technical process when applying: use the right concrete, mortar mark; Remove formwork when the concrete is old enough (avoid hammering, cracking, structural deformation); Soak the cement in accordance with the concrete floor. The use of waterproofing additives must be in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications and proportions.
- Note and thoroughly handle critical positions.
Waterproofing and chemical - material solutions
When seepage occurs, it may not be immediately recognizable, and it is not easy to identify the cause and location of the problem. Capillary water inside the material and structures, can travel very far to appear on the surface. Knowing the right cause and location is the top priority, then choosing the right solution. However, the waterproofing must be done right from the time of construction, in places where waterproofing.
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Materials outside the brick wall to enhance the ability of waterproofing from the outside
One thing to note is that most of the infiltration causes come from leakage of piping and drainage - especially infiltration. So handling the root cause is the problem, not the treatment for the wall area is permeable. In case of certainty, it is not necessary to use the appropriate methods and waterproofing materials, depending on each case.
Additives, waterproofing today are many, but can be divided into two basic groups:
Inorganic waterproofing substances are generally derived from silicates. The principle is that the waterproofing solution will penetrate deep, interact with the concrete block, fill the voids, capillary in the concrete block to prevent water.
Organic waterproofing substances are usually derived from bitumen and polymer. The principle is that the solution is covered on the surface, when dry forming the membrane on the surface should be waterproof. This layer allows for a certain level of elasticity. However, this waterproof membrane will age over time.
Be proactive and not overly dependent on technology
Once upon a time, this article was called by a customer complaining about the infiltration. Of course, the author must go through the same project and see the roof. It's sunny and dry, but the whole roof is ... a pond. For the simple reason, the roof collector's funnel is littered, the leaves fall off, and the water is not drained. The roof, not the tank, so the waterproof, although it is waterproof from the construction but soaked for several days, risk still occurs. Obviously, it is very important to always check and maintain the works. Many of the consequences stem from improper use, operation, or indifference. It may be early if the early detection, treatment is extremely simple; But if it takes a long time to complicate matters. Waterproofing, too, should be active. Waterproofing must be carried out at the beginning of the design and construction process. In the process of using the building also always have to pay attention. Proper use of water, providing the best conditions for drainage, to protect the structural surface from damage ... are things to control and do, not wait until the new infiltration. Look for chemicals and waterproofing additives. Although good, but not good or too late, all have no effect. That's what reality has proven.
Waterproofing - a dilemma. But it is not too difficult if we know how to coordinate the solutions and implement the principles and technical procedures. Always keep in mind that: Always be proactive in waterproofing; Waterproof materials are only supportive, not magic.
According to architect Nguyen Tran Duc Anh (SGTT)